GLU-Negative in a urine test – what it means and what you should be afraid of with such test readings

Whatever pathology is suspected in the patient, one of the most important stages of diagnosis is a general urine test. During this study, you can obtain a lot of information and draw reliable conclusions about the state of human health.

When the form issued indicates the presence of ubg, many patients do not understand what this abbreviation means and whether the presence of the component is hazardous to health. Ubg in urine analysis means urobilinogen. A change in the level of urobilinogen from the norm can be observed at any age and often indicates the development of pathological processes.

But often an increase in the concentration of a component in urine is associated with insufficient fluid intake into the body and other reasons. Before drawing conclusions, additional diagnostics are required.

Position of red blood cells in a general urinalysis

A general urine test (UCA) is a laboratory study of the organoleptic properties and biochemical composition of a waste product excreted by the kidneys. Organoleptic characteristics and norms for adults:

≈ 75% of the liquid drunklight yellow (straw)without harsh shadesclose to absolute1.01–1.02 g/l4–7 pH

Components in the urine of a healthy person

Determined in minimal quantitiesNot defined
red blood cells (Bld)acetone, otherwise ketone bodies (Ket)
leukocytes (Leu)granular and waxy cylinders
glucose (Glu)bacteria
protein (Pro)bilirubin (Bil)
hyaline castsyeast fungi
urobilinogen (Uro)salt

Urine examination allows us to identify pathological changes in the body to further determine the exact cause of the disorders. The analysis is prescribed for diagnosis, monitoring of therapy and for prevention purposes. The results are assessed by comparing the obtained indicators with the reference values ​​​​accepted in laboratory microscopy.

The results are recorded in the study form. Undetected elements are indicated by a dash, Russian “absent” or English “neg” (negative). When identifying components that should not be in urine, the term “trace intact” is used. Another result accepted in laboratory examination is the “presence of traces”, which is recorded in the final conclusion as “trace lysed”.

The structural units of the kidneys, the nephrons, are responsible for the formation and excretion of urine. They consist of a renal corpuscle, where the liquid portion of the blood is filtered, and a system of tubules, in which resorption (absorption) and excretion (excretion) of substances occur. Only micromolecular material leaks through the capillary walls. Red blood cells are too large in size and, in the absence of pathologies of the renal apparatus, practically cannot penetrate into urine.

Detection of organic matter concentrations

One of the main tasks of conducting a general urine test is to determine which organic components and substances are excreted from the patient’s body. Obtaining this information greatly facilitates diagnosis and assessment of the overall clinical picture.

The main organic substances that are determined during OAM (general urine analysis) are:

  • glucose. If the form indicates glu neg, it means that there is no glucose in the sample being tested. Normally, the content of this component should be minimal and not exceed a value of 0.083. Elevated glucose levels may be a sign of diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis and renal pathologies;
  • protein (pro). Normally, this component should be absent from urine;
  • bilirubin. When the analysis shows bil neg, this is normal. The presence of the component should not be detected in the urine of both adults and children. If testing shows the presence of bilirubin, this indicates problems with the liver, gall bladder, and may also be a sign of severe poisoning;
  • urobilinogen. For this indicator, as for bilirubin, the norm is neg;
  • ketone bodies. The presence of acetone in urine is a symptom of diabetes mellitus, increased thyroid hormones, and prolonged fasting.

Normal values

The Bld measurement value is a digital indicator (how many red blood cells are counted) per microliter (µl). In literal equivalent, the decoding looks like ca x ery/ul, (where x is the number of Bld, ery/ul is red blood cells per microliter). The term “in sight” is used for counting.

Depending on the laboratory performing the urine test, the designation rbc/ul may be used. The norm of red blood cells in urine is graded according to age (in children and adults) and gender (in women and men). Standard values ​​of red blood cells by age and gender:

Infants up to one year oldChildren and teenagers under 16 years of ageAdults
complete absence0–2/µlno more than 3/µl1–2/µl

A slight increase in the number of red blood cells in the urine is allowed in women during the perinatal period. The upper limit of the norm for pregnant women is Bld ca 5 ery/ul. A high concentration of red blood cells, otherwise the presence of blood in urine can be visually suspected by the changed color of the biofluid. However, it is impossible to determine this without laboratory examination. A temporary change in the color of urine is caused by eating asparagus, beets, blackberries, and taking laxative medications.

An incorrect procedure for collecting urine in the first seven days of the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (the period of bleeding) can distort the results of the analysis in women. It is recommended to postpone the study until the cessation of menstruation. If an urgent analysis is required, before collecting urine, it is necessary to perform thorough hygiene of the genitals and insert a tampon into the vagina.

What does the concentration of 3.2 indicate?

More than three units mean that the death of red blood cells occurs en masse. This phenomenon is called hemolysis (destruction of blood). Hemolytic poisons or infection are usually responsible for the destruction of large numbers of red blood cells.

If you were not bitten by a snake and you were not poisoned by anything, then most likely the cause was infection with microorganisms that destroy blood. These include, for example, hemolytic streptococcus and gas gangrene bacillus. These microorganisms are very dangerous; their active reproduction and poisoning by their metabolic products with the simultaneous death of red blood cells can easily lead to death.

Just as often, the reason for the accelerated death of red blood cells is their own inferiority associated with a mutation that is inherited. In this case, massive death of red blood cells, and therefore corresponding changes in test results, will be observed from birth.

Deviations from the norm

Exceeding the standard values ​​of red blood cells in the urine is called hematuria, which is classified:

  • by the number of detected Blds (micro- and macrohematuria);
  • for the reasons for the occurrence of deviations (extrarenal, renal, physiological).

Microhematuria is characterized by an increase in analysis parameters to a maximum of Bld ca 20 ery/ul. In this case, the color of the biofluid has no external changes. Red blood cell counts are performed by microscopy of urine sediment. Macrohematuria is a deviation of values ​​above Bld ca 25 ery/ul, which is accompanied by pronounced changes in the color of urine.

A multiplication of red blood cells one hundred times the natural norm (ca 200 ery/ul) indicates that the bladder is actually filled with blood. This condition is dangerous to health and life; emergency hospitalization is indicated for the patient. Blood levels in the urine exceeding 250/μl are grounds for suspected oncology of the urinary system.

What does neg or Negative mean?

What does neg mean in urine analysis? We can say that this is the main keyword in decoding. It means that the collected and studied material lacks one or another indicator. As a rule, such an additive is added only with five ciphers: GLU, VTC, NIT, PRO, BIL.

To calm your soul, you should know how to decipher these indicators yourself:

  • if there is no or low glucose in the urine, the person is healthy and does not require additional therapy or research to reduce sugar. The expression: “I get tested for sugar” is precisely the study of GLU. However, high sugar levels can occur with some kidney diseases;
  • VTC marked neg allows you to breathe easy, since no sexually transmitted diseases have been detected;
  • Neg together with NIT is an indicator of the normal level of bacteria. If absent, there is inflammation in the pelvic organs. These include urethritis and cystitis. As well as the reproductive system and urinary tract;
  • Neg and PRO. Protein levels are important for every person, regardless of gender and age. Only 1-2 units are allowed. in the material being studied. Everything else can be called a deviation from the norm. At the same time, using specially developed analyzes (for example, according to Nichiporenko), the trend of protein growth and reduction is monitored. If there are no changes, the amount does not decrease with all samples, then consultation with a nephrologist or proctologist is necessary. Thus, the body indicates the onset and development of diseases of the kidneys, urinary tract or prostate gland. Additional examination is required;
  • Neg BIL. Doctors act responsibly when bilirubin is detected in the material being studied. This way you can notice all deviations from the normal functioning of the liver. This means that the process of destruction of red cells in the blood occurs. This is how hematomas, intoxication and liver damage are detected.

Renal causes of increased urinary Bld concentrations

Pathologies of the renal apparatus causing renal hematuria:

  • Immunoinflammatory damage to the glomeruli of the kidneys (glomeruli), otherwise glomerulonephritis. It has an independent character or develops as a complication of previous infectious viral diseases. Untimely treatment threatens the development of acute renal failure.
  • Acute or chronic inflammation of the renal tubular system (pyelonephritis). Has a bacterial etiology (origin).
  • Nephrolithiasis (kidney stone disease). Characterized by the formation of calculi of various organic nature in the kidneys.
  • CRF (chronic renal failure). Gradual loss of kidney function. It progresses as a concomitant complication of pathologies of the renal apparatus and endocrine system. It has four stages of development, the primary of which can be diagnosed with Bld ca10 ery/ul indicators.
  • Enlargement of the renal calyces and pelvis due to impaired urine outflow (hydronephrosis). In a chronic progressive course, it leads to the death of renal tubules and nephrons.
  • Extrapulmonary infection with Koch's bacillus (nephrotuberculosis). Most often, it is a consequence of advanced tuberculosis of the bones and lungs.
  • Benign renal neoplasms (adenoma, cyst, hemangioma, fibroma, lipoma).
  • Malignant tumor (kidney cancer). Multifactorial disease. The only treatment is nephrectomy (removal of the kidney) in combination with chemotherapy.

Blood spots and blood clots can be observed with mechanical damage (trauma, bruises, etc.) to the kidneys. The release of blood into the urine means a violation of the integrity of blood vessels and organ tissues.

Concentration Index: 0

The complete absence of urobilinogen in the urine does not mean that the liver does not secrete bilirubin. This only means that bilirubin does not flow from the liver to the intestines, where urobilinogen should be formed from it.

This phenomenon occurs due to obstruction (blockage) of the biliary tract. In this case, bile stops flowing into the intestines altogether, and substances that should be excreted along with it begin to accumulate in the liver and penetrate from it back into the blood. As a result, the level of bilirubin in the blood increases, symptoms of jaundice, pain in the liver area, itching of the skin and nausea begin.

This is a serious and dangerous condition that requires immediate treatment . Blockage of the bile ducts occurs for various reasons. This may be a tumor of the bile ducts, stones or cysts of the gallbladder, infection with parasites (giardiasis), the formation of scar tissue or an inflammatory process.

Extrarenal causes of blood in urine

Extrarenal hematuria accompanies the following diseases:

  • genetic bleeding disorder (hemophilia);
  • acute inflammation of the bladder walls (cystitis);
  • rupture of the vessels of the urethra (urethra) and bladder due to injury;
  • STIs (sexually transmitted infections);
  • malignant tumor of the mucous membrane or wall of the bladder (cancer);
  • inflammation of the walls of the urethra (urethritis);
  • hypertension in stage III;
  • genital injuries;
  • urolithiasis (stones in the bladder or urinary ducts).

Diseases of the genitourinary system by gender:

acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis)violation of the integrity of the cervical epithelium (erosion)
BPHuterine bleeding of various etiologies (endometriosis, adenomyosis, etc.)
malignant prostate tumorpostpartum pathologies
penile cancerinflammation of the vaginal mucosa (colpitis)
malignant and benign neoplasms of the genital organs (fibroids, cervical or uterine cancer, etc.)

Lowering values

This fact usually does not have diagnostic value for specialists. But if urobilinogen is reduced/absent against the background of increased bilirubin, then a number of pathologies should be excluded:

  • obstruction of the biliary tract (common causes are spasm of the bile ducts, obstruction by stones in gallstones);
  • hepatitis A (non-infectious liver damage, accompanied by yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes);
  • impaired filtration function of the kidneys;
  • other kidney diseases:
  • oncology;
  • glomerulonephritis;
  • pyelonephritis, etc.

Physiological hematuria

Non-pathological reasons for increased levels of red blood cells in urine include:

  • Staying in conditions of elevated ambient temperature. This could be working in hot workshops, a hot microclimate in a bathhouse (sauna).
  • Distress (constant neuropsychological tension provokes an increase in the fragility of small vessels).
  • Passion for alcoholic drinks. Alcohol causes constriction of renal vessels and increases capillary permeability.
  • Sports or other physical overload. Capillaries and larger renal vessels can rupture from excessive stress.

Detection of Bld in urine can be caused by incorrect use of certain medications: antithrombotic drugs (anticoagulants), phospholipids, drugs that improve blood microcirculation (Pentoxifylline and its analogues), drugs used to treat oncological tumors (cytostatics). In women, drug-induced hematuria can be caused by inappropriate hormonal contraceptives.

Reasons for increased levels of the substance

According to doctors, normally the ubg indicator should be negative, which is due to its minimal amount in urine. If testing shows an increased level of ubg, this indicates excess production or disruption of bilirubin metabolism.

Most often this is due to the following reasons:

  • liver diseases. An increase in ubg accompanies diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver intoxication, jaundice;
  • hemolytic diseases accompanied by increased destruction of red blood cells. Most often, this is observed with infectious pathologies, blood poisoning, or a recent blood transfusion;
  • pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • congestion in the liver;
  • recent infectious diseases;
  • severe anemia;
  • chemical poisoning;
  • previous heart attack;
  • heart failure.

Clarifying the diagnosis

To determine the exact cause of the increase in the concentration of red blood cells in a general urine test, the patient undergoes additional diagnostics. Based on a comparative table of indicators, the doctor prescribes laboratory tests and hardware procedures.

Bld values4–10 ery/ul11–50 ery/ul50–150 ery/ul200–250 ery/ul
Pathologiesinflammatory processes in the urinary and genital organsprimary stage of chronic renal failurechronic and severe infectious pathologiesbenign or malignant neoplasms

The list of auxiliary laboratory tests includes:

  • biochemistry and general clinical analysis (CCA) of blood;
  • microscopy of three portions of urine obtained during one emptying of the bladder (three-glass sample);
  • urine sample according to Nechiporenko (analysis of sediment after centrifugation of biological fluid);
  • urine tests using the Amburger and Kakovsky-Addis method;
  • collection and examination of tissue fragments from the kidneys or urinary organs (biopsy).

What parameters are used to evaluate urine analysis?

As a result of the study, the values ​​of several physical parameters are indicated at once. Most often, the indicators do not differ, regardless of where exactly the study was conducted.

In a healthy person, the urine should have a yellow tint, which may vary in intensity. All other colors indicate pathological processes:

  • if the sample is brown, this is a dangerous sign that may indicate the development of malignant neoplasms. And urine also acquires this shade during alcohol intoxication and chemical poisoning, as well as anemia;
  • if the urine becomes pink or reddish, this indicates the development of an inflammatory process. And also this shade may indicate kidney pathologies, including a heart attack or serious injury. Often the urine becomes reddish when the production of hemoglobin is impaired. Red color indicates blood in the urine. But experts warn that changes in the color of urine are not always associated with dangerous pathologies. Sometimes a change in shade is observed when beets, carrots and rhubarb are consumed;
  • A pale yellow tint of urine is regarded as a sign of developing diabetes mellitus. If the disease progresses to the second or third stage, the urine may become translucent;
  • the milky color of the sample indicates the presence of pus impurities, increased accumulation of fats and phosphates.

Transparency and smell

If a person is healthy, the urine excreted should be clear. Minor turbidity is observed only after a few hours of exposure to open air and is associated with the sedimentation of salts dissolved in it. This process is natural and does not indicate the development of pathologies. The more impurities present in the urine, the cloudier it will become.

As for the smell, it should not be too strong. If the excreted urine smells strongly of ammonia, this indicates an inflammatory process in the kidneys or in the bladder itself. In patients with diabetes, the urine gives off a slight odor of apples.


Normally, urine pH should not exceed 7.0. Values ​​are considered normal when analysis shows that acidity varies between 5–7. The acidity of urine usually increases with fever and dehydration, acute inflammation, prolonged diarrhea and infectious diseases. And also such a reaction may indicate the presence of stones in the kidneys of an adult or child.


Bld in the general urine test form indicates the content of erythrocytes (red blood cells). The number indicated opposite the abbreviation corresponds to the number of cells detected during the study. Ideally, the presence of blood in urine should not be detected. The maximum permissible Bld value for men is 2 ery/ul (erythrocytes per microliter), for women - 3 ery/ul (in the perinatal period up to 5 ery/ul).

Exceeding the reference values ​​is defined as hematuria: up to 20 ery/ul - microhematuria, over 25 ery/ul - macrohematuria. An increase in indicators to 200–250 suggests the development of oncopathologies of the kidneys, bladder or genital organs (uterus, prostate, penis).

Depending on the reasons that led to the penetration of blood into the urine, renal hematuria is determined, associated with diseases of the renal apparatus, extrarenal, characteristic of diseases of the genital area and urinary system, as well as physiological, provoked by external influences or an unhealthy lifestyle. To make an accurate diagnosis, the patient is prescribed a complete examination of the genitourinary system.

Hello. I took a general urine and blood test (for myself, nothing to worry about). The blood test is normal in all respects, but a large number of red blood cells BLG 3+>=Ca200 Ery/ul were found in the urine. There is nothing to worry about in the genitourinary system. Recently I was checked by a gynecologist - the smear was normal, no infections were detected. What could this mean?

Interpretation of analysis results

Let's take a consistent look at the main diagnostic parameters of urine that are studied during a general clinical examination, their indicators are normal and the reasons that cause various deviations.

Table of normal urine parameters for an adult

IndexReference values
S.G.1008-1027 g/l
PROUp to 0.002 g/l
LEUMen - 2-3 in the field of view. Women - 6-8 in the field of view.
URO340-570 mmol/day
UBGUp to 10 mg/l

The norms for the results of a child's urine test are almost identical to the norms for an adult. The differences are in daily volume and relative density, the indicators of which change as the baby grows older.

Reasons for changes in urine specific gravity

The parameters of the relative density of urine (in Latin - special gravity) indicate the ability of the kidneys to filter and concentrate biological fluid. The indicators change throughout the day - at night, more concentrated urine is produced, during the day - the specific gravity is much lower.

Measuring the specific gravity of urine is one of the stages of general clinical analysis

An increase in urine density of more than 1030 g/l is designated by the medical term “hyper-stenuria,” which indicates:

  • dehydration of the body;
  • excessive physical stress;
  • diabetes;
  • cardiovascular failure;
  • urinary tract infections;
  • glomerulonephritis;
  • urolithiasis.

Specific gravity in urine analysis

The term “hypo-sthenuria” means a decrease in density below 1005 g/l. This phenomenon is observed when:

  • excessive fluid intake;
  • diabetes insipidus;
  • polyuria – increased urine production;
  • decreased concentration ability of the kidneys;
  • chronic pyelonephritis.

When performing a general clinical analysis of urine, the specific gravity is determined from a single portion. However, this figure alone does not provide complete information about the functioning of the kidneys during the day.

To assess daily diuresis, additional urine tests are performed:

  • a specific test according to Zimnitsky’s method;
  • water load test;
  • dry sample.

If there are no changes in the specific gravity of urine depending on the time of day, urologists conclude that the patient has isosthenuria (the inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine), which is a sign of renal failure.

Why does the acidity of urine change?

The urine reaction is an important indicator of the acid-base balance in the human body. This is due to the fact that the kidneys ensure a constant level of hydrogen in the blood and its acidity.

The pH level fluctuates throughout the day and depends on:

  • volume of fluid consumed;
  • body temperature;
  • diet;
  • general condition of the body.

To measure the acidity level of urine, there are special test strips that can be purchased at pharmacies and measured pH at home.

An increase in acidity (less than 4.0 - urine is acidic) is called acidosis, this condition is observed when:

  • the predominance of meat products in the diet;
  • prolonged fasting;
  • a decrease in potassium levels in the blood;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • dehydration of the body;
  • functional kidney disorders.

A decrease in acidity (above 7.0 is an alkaline reaction) is called alkalosis, which is characterized by:

  • for chronic renal failure;
  • to increase potassium concentration in the blood;
  • for malignant neoplasms in the urinary system;
  • with an increase in the concentration of parathyroid hormones;
  • for infections of the genitourinary system;
  • with prolonged intoxication of the body.

Change in total protein levels

The medical term “proteinuria” means an increase in the concentration of globulin and albumin (the main proteins of blood plasma) in the urine of more than 0.028 g/l. This fact indicates a violation of the filtration function of the kidneys, which is observed with:

  • infectious and inflammatory processes in the organs of the urinary system;
  • bleeding;
  • hypertension;
  • long-term anemia;
  • amyloid dystrophy.

Assessing the amount of protein in urine is an important diagnostic point.

Penetration of large proteins through the glomeruli is also possible for natural reasons:

  • the predominance of protein foods in the diet;
  • increased sweating;
  • hypothermia;
  • excessive physical activity.

Extrarenal origin of proteinuria is observed with:

  • pregnancy;
  • epilepsy;
  • allergies;
  • heart failure;
  • leukemia.

Causes of glucosuria

Glucose is not detected in the urine of a healthy person. The reasons for its appearance may be situations not related to pathological processes in the body:

  • physical stress;
  • stress;
  • excessive consumption of carbohydrates.

Pathological glycosuria is divided into renal, which is characterized by the excretion of glucose in the urine at a normal level of its content in the blood, and extrarenal, in which the level of glucose in the blood significantly exceeds the norm.

Renal is observed when:

  • chronic nephritis;
  • renal diabetes;
  • acute renal failure;
  • phosphorus poisoning of the body.

Causes of the extrarenal form:

  • pancreatitis;
  • diabetes;
  • malignant tumor in the pancreas;
  • hyperfunction of the thyroid gland;
  • pituitary acromegaly;
  • hypercortisolism - excessive amounts of adrenal hormones;
  • pheochromocytoma is a hormonal tumor of the adrenal medulla.

A single appearance of glucose in the urine does not have an important diagnostic value; its level must be measured systematically - for this purpose, you can purchase a rapid glucose test at the pharmacy

Sources of leukocytouria

An increase in the number of leukocytes in the urine is always associated with the development of an inflammatory process in the organs of the urinary system and is observed with:

  • cystitis - inflammation of the bladder;
  • urethritis or prostatitis - damage to the urethra or prostate gland;
  • pyelonephritis – nonspecific inflammation of the kidneys.

Reasons for the presence of red blood cells in urine

The appearance of red blood cells in the urinary sediment is called hematuria. The following types of red blood cells can be found in urine:

  • fresh (unchanged) – observed in cases of urinary tract lesions caused by urolithiasis, cystitis, urethritis;
  • leached (altered) - enter the urine as a result of the penetration of red blood cells into the renal tubules, this fact indicates kidney damage.

There are macrohematuria (which can be determined with the naked eye - the urine takes on a bright scarlet hue) and microhematuria (red blood cells are detected by microscopy)

To clarify the source of the appearance of red blood cells and increase the number of leukocytes in urine, the patient is prescribed a study of three portions of urine excreted during one urination.

Detection of nitrites in urine

Nitrites are nitrogen salts; they are formed from nitrates that enter the human body when consuming foods that have been grown with large amounts of fertilizers.

This process is possible if there are a large number of bacteria in the bladder. That is why, when nitrites are detected in a general urine test, they speak of bacteriuria, which is a sign of a urinary tract infection.

The appearance of ketone bodies

The cause of ketonouria is a violation of metabolic processes - protein, fat and carbohydrates. Most often, ketone bodies are found when:

  • diabetes mellitus;
  • acute pancreatitis;
  • prolonged fasting;
  • alcohol poisoning;
  • hypercortisolism;
  • thyrotoxicosis;
  • injuries affecting the nervous system.

Natural ketonouria is observed in children and pregnant women - as a result of uric acid diathesis (decreased excretion of uric acid by the kidneys).


Good afternoon, most likely you mean BLD (short for the English word blood). This indicator indicates the presence of blood in the urine. Normally, this should not happen; the number 3 means presence within the visibility range. Those. For you, the urine looks normal in appearance, but laboratory technicians can see with the naked eye a change in the color of the urine due to the presence of blood cells there. The appearance of blood may be normal, but in your case, 200 red blood cells indicate the pathological presence of blood. Do an MRI, ultrasound - you need to find out the cause of hematuria and start treatment.

The detection of more than 3 red blood cells in urine sediment per field of view indicates the presence of various diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract.
Visible traces of blood in the urine can be observed in a woman during menstruation, which requires repeated testing.
When erythrocytes are detected through a general clinical analysis, in order to make a more accurate diagnosis, the patient is referred for additional diagnostic studies - quantitative determination of erythrocytes in urine sediment using the Nechiporenko, Kakhovsky-Addis methods, as well as two-glass or three-glass tests to determine the localization of the pathological process.


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To determine leukocytes in urine, you need to take a test.

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The main test for identifying inflammatory diseases of the kidneys, bladder and urethra is urine culture.

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Urine culture for flora helps to diagnose kidney and urinary tract diseases.

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In some cases, the fact that leukocytes are elevated in the urine of an infant does not mean illness.

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What could mean the phenomenon in which red blood cells in the urine are increased? This question puzzles almost all people who are faced with a similar pathology.

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Taking urine tests while carrying a child is a necessary attribute of visiting a doctor, and leukocytes in the urine during pregnancy are a kind of indicator of health.

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The Rehberg test allows you to judge the cleansing ability of the kidneys. This method is indispensable as a differential diagnosis of tissue and functional damage to the filtering organs.

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During a medical examination, altered and unchanged red blood cells can be detected in the urine, based on the percentage of which the doctor can draw conclusions regarding the time the blood cells remain in the urine.

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Increased red blood cells in a child’s urine most often indicate the development of pathological processes affecting the excretory system, and in particular the kidneys, bladder or urinary canal.

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If a general urine test does not provide enough information to make a diagnosis, the patient is prescribed additional tests, one of which is the Sulkovich test.

Bld in urine - what does it mean?

Red blood cells in the urine, defined as more than three in the field of view, are called in medicine the term “ hematuria ,” which in turn is classified into:

  • Microhematuria is a phenomenon in which the color of the urine is normal (from light yellow to yellow), but red blood cells are detected as a result of microscopy of the sediment.
  • Macrohematuria - the color of urine can be brown, red, or brown.
  • Renal (renal) - the causes of hematuria are renal diseases: trauma, tuberculosis or heart attack, acute glomerulonephritis.
  • Extrarenal (extrarenal) – occurs with urogenital diseases: cystitis, prostatitis, urethritis.

When conducting three-glass tests, hematuria is also divided into initial, final or terminal - depending on which portion of urine contains blood.
If red blood cells are detected in the urine, a repeat general clinical test is always prescribed. If the second time the result is positive, then the diagnosis of pathologies of the kidneys and urinary tract is beyond doubt.

Hematuria is one of the most common symptoms of diseases and injuries of the urinary system. The most dangerous type of hematuria is macrohematuria , which mainly appears with cancer of the kidneys, pelvis, bladder and ureter, and can also accompany urolithiasis and tuberculosis.

What do we have to do

If the analysis showed an increased level of urobilinogen, the first step is to identify what caused the increased production of the component. As practice shows, in approximately 40% of cases, such a violation is a consequence of constant stress, stagnation and non-compliance with the daily routine.

In such a situation, to normalize the ubg level, it is enough to start following a daily routine and lead a more active lifestyle. It is useful to start going to the pool and playing sports, since such exercise will help cleanse the body of waste and toxins.

The patient needs to reconsider his diet and include as many fresh fermented milk products as possible, which will help improve intestinal activity. As auxiliary agents, you can use decoctions of bitter herbs such as wormwood, immortelle, and milk thistle.

Hematuria in a child

The causes of hematuria in children can be classified according to the frequency of their manifestation depending on the age of the child:

  • Hematuria in infants often occurs with thrombosis of the renal vein due to acute infections, with malformations of the genitourinary system, and hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.
  • In preschool children, the appearance of blood in the urine is often caused by injuries and damage to the external genitalia, urinary tract infection, glomerulonephritis, kidney tumor or abnormalities of their development.
  • In school-age children, red blood cells in the urine can be detected in cases of kidney injuries and tumors, inflammation of the urinary tract (cystitis, urethritis), glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, thrombopathy, systemic lupus erythematosus.

You need to know that it is impossible to diagnose the disease based on hematuria alone. Additionally, a wide range of studies are carried out: ultrasound of the kidneys and urinary tract, microscopy analysis of urine sediment, three-glass samples, blood biochemistry and related diagnostic techniques to determine possible pathologies.

Increasing values

  • Excessive secretion of bilirubin or slow rates of bilirubin breakdown;
  • Liver diseases;
  • failure;
  • cirrhosis;
  • hepatitis;
  • hepatic vein thrombosis;
  • oncology;
  • Obstruction (blockage) of the bile ducts;
  • Diseases of the spleen;
  • Heart failure or a history of myocardial infarction, which resulted in a malfunction of the liver apparatus;
  • The body’s protective reaction to synthetic components of implanted heart valves and blood vessels;
  • Hemolysis (the process of destruction of red blood cells) due to blood transfusion or hemolytic anemia;
  • Changes in blood structure after blood transfusion (if the blood of the donor and recipient is incompatible by group or Rh factor);
  • Poisoning with chemical reagents, poisons, mushrooms, medications, alcoholic beverages, heavy metals;
  • Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract:
  • enterocolitis (inflammation of the large intestine);
  • ileitis (damage to the ileum), etc.
  • Symptom in men

    Hematuria in men is often a sign of inflammatory urogenital diseases (urethritis, prostatitis).
    Microhematuria (insignificant) the number of red blood cells in the urine can be determined in chronic prostatitis. Macrohematuria is observed in pathological conditions of the urethra (urethritis, malignant tumors, papillomas, genital warts) as well as in inflammation of the bladder, acute prostatitis. , three-glass samples are used in urology . If blood is diagnosed in the first glass of urine, then this indicates damage to the urethra, in the third glass - diseases of the prostate gland and bladder. If blood is detected in all portions (total hematuria), this is a sign of kidney and bladder disorders.

    Indications for urine testing

    A general urine test is prescribed to healthy people undergoing annual medical examinations and to patients who have various complaints about deteriorating health.

    Urine examination is carried out when:

    • diagnosing pathological processes in the kidneys and urinary tract;
    • detection of prostate diseases;
    • mandatory examination before surgical interventions;
    • recent illnesses in which kidney complications are possible;
    • suspicion of diabetes mellitus, hepatitis, pancreatitis;
    • assessing the toxic state of the patient’s body;
    • monitoring the course of the disease and the effectiveness of treatment.

    For children, the study is carried out before a scheduled visit to the pediatrician and each vaccination, as well as for various ailments. This makes it possible to promptly identify developing pathological processes in the child’s body.

    Expectant mothers need to regularly undergo a urine test - in addition to monitoring the general condition of the body and urinary system, the study will allow for the timely detection of such a serious pathological condition as gestosis (late toxicosis)

    Among women

    Red blood cells in the urine of women can be detected in cases of gynecological diseases, pathologies of the kidneys and urinary tract.

    Blood in the urine of women can be detected during menstruation and in various inflammatory and infectious gynecological diseases (erosion, vulvitis, urogenital chlamydia), therefore, to diagnose kidney disorders, it is important to take a urine test during the absence of menstruation and after thorough treatment of the perineum. To prevent vaginal discharge from getting into the urine container, close the vagina with a cotton swab before urinating. In some cases, in hospital settings, a woman’s urine is collected with a catheter.

    Hematuria is a symptom of the following diseases:

    • Pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis in the acute phase;
    • Urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis;
    • Malignant formations of the urinary system;
    • Heart attack and kidney tuberculosis;
    • Injury to the organs of the urinary system;
    • Urolithiasis disease;
    • Nephrotic syndrome.

    OAM execution sequence

    When testing urine in a laboratory, the following processes are performed:

    • physical parameters of biological fluid are assessed,
    • the presence or absence of organic substances is determined,
    • The sediment is examined under a microscope.

    In modern laboratories, urine analysis is often performed with special analyzers that provide results very quickly. However, some indicators are determined using a microscope. It’s not even worth trying to decrypt all the recorded data yourself. After all, many people do not know the concept of neg in urine analysis and what it means, this needs to be clarified further. Decoding must be performed by a trained specialist who knows in what value this or that indicator should be assessed.

    Hematuria during pregnancy

    A common occurrence during pregnancy, especially in its last stages, is pregnancy nephropathy , which is caused by increased load on the kidneys and is characterized by the appearance of protein in the urine, edema and increased blood pressure.
    With nephropathy in pregnant women, red blood cells in the urine can be detected in small quantities, no more than 10. Also, in pregnant women with a history of chronic pyelonephritis , its transition to the acute stage is possible, which is also diagnosed by the appearance of red blood cells (no more than 10), leukocytes and bacteria in the urine.

    Blood in the urine during pregnancy can be observed with pregnant hemorrhoids , especially with internal nodes, which in the early stages do not have any other clinical symptoms other than heavy bleeding.

    Change in uro concentration - what does it mean?

    Fluctuations in urobilinogen indicate various diseases, and not only an increase in concentration, but also a decrease in it indicates various diseases.

    So, a drop in the concentration of the substance means that the bile ducts are blocked, and less bile enters the intestines.

    In turn, an increase in the concentration of the substance means an accelerated breakdown of red blood cells in the liver, which indicates blood diseases, hematomas and other disorders that cause the death of blood cells.

    Red blood cell norm

    Normally, the color of urine should be from light yellow to yellow, and red blood cells in its sediment should not be detected. However, it should be remembered that its color may change under the influence of various dyes; for example, after eating beets, its tint may be pinkish. On general clinical test forms, blood in the urine is indicated by the abbreviations “KRO” or “BLD.” Normally, opposite these designations there is a “NEG” symbol, which means a negative result.

    The determination of red blood cells in quantities exceeding the norm is recorded with the symbols “+”, “++”, “+++”, which means their number or numerical values.

    Hello! Help me decipher the urine test!!!

    Passed by Prof. examination, found blood in the urine. Today I tested my urine again and got the result. SD (10) (0593) BLD-neg,BIL-neg,URO+16 umo l KET-neg,PRO-neg,NIT-neg GLU-neg,pH 5.5,SG >1.025 LEU-neg (SN-60153162) ID (221) OP(00000000) LOT(000000) Who knows what it means, help me understand if my urine is okay, whoever doesn’t know, please don’t comment….

    Vi lll

    color is normal, bilirubin is not detected, transparency is normal, specific gravity is above normal and decent, glucose is not detected (tobish sugar), pH acidity is within normal limits, no leukocytes are detected, no protein. Overall not so bad, but oud. your weight is high - drink more fluids, your body doesn’t have enough.

    What does the quantity 10 rbc/ul mean?

    The determination of erythrocytes in urine in the amount of 10 cells per field of view can be observed in chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and pyelonephritis.
    Also, a small amount of them can be detected during inflammation of the reproductive system in women (endometritis, cervical erosion, vulvitis). You can also differentiate kidney disease from inflammatory diseases of the genital organs through a general clinical urine test, paying attention to the following criteria. In chronic renal failure, leukocytes are also found in small quantities. The main sign indicating chronic renal failure is a decrease in urine density (“SG” on the form) to 1.010. Traces of mucus and single cylinders are also found.

    Nephrotic syndrome is indicated by a protein content of up to 40 g/l, up to 20 leukocytes and a large number of cylinders.

    Pyelonephritis is characterized by a large number of leukocytes up to 100, a low protein content - up to 2 g/l, and the presence of casts, bacteria and mucus.

    This number of red blood cells in the urine test form is also indicated by the “+” symbol.

    Bld at 50 rbc/ul

    Expert opinion

    Kovaleva Elena Anatolyevna

    Doctor-Laboratory Assistant. 14 years of experience in clinical diagnostic services.

    Ask a question to an expert

    Determination of red blood cells in urine at a value of 50 rbc/ul (can also be indicated by the symbol “++” on the analysis form) is a sign of the following pathologies: cystitis , acute glomerulonephritis, kidney infarction, urolithiasis.

    As a rule, these diseases are accompanied by pronounced clinical manifestations in the patient - increased body temperature, pain in the kidneys, pain when urinating, swelling, increased blood pressure (diastolic or lower).

    Together with hematuria, traces of protein, leukocytes, bacteria, and epithelial cells are determined.

    What does the 250 rbc/ul indicator mean?

    Red blood cells in the urine in the amount of 250 indicate macrohematuria , that is, we can say that a person’s bladder is emptied with blood, so high is its content. Urine is red or brown in color .
    This condition is dangerous to human health. Gross hematuria often indicates malignant kidney tumors. It can also be observed with renal infarction and urolithiasis after attacks, with acute glomerulonephritis. The patient must be subject to additional examination: microscopy of urine sediment, culture test, three-glass or two-glass samples, ultrasound and MRI of the kidneys and bladder, blood biochemistry, kidney biopsy.

    Understanding Analysis and Responses

    Urinalysis is one of the most important and reliable sources of what is happening inside a person. How his organs work, and is it worth paying attention to any system. This is what is required when:

    • admission to hospital with any illness;
    • examination;
    • before starting preparation for surgery;
    • applying for a job and undergoing a medical examination;
    • and just to make sure that the therapy is correct.

    This diagnosis is suitable for everyone without exception. Does not evoke negative reactions or disgust or fear. Even babies react completely calmly to urine collection. The resulting material must be studied carefully. Only the laboratory assistant knows what needs to be done to ensure that the results are true.

    When studying urine, attention is paid to literally everything: color, smell, consistency, density. But the main indicators are deciphered. Therefore, many questions immediately arise. For example, neg, which means in a urine test. Or what does PH and UBG have to do with it. Therefore, we will briefly talk about all the abbreviations that appear in the results:

    CipherWhat does it meanDecoding the concept
    BLdred blood cellsMust be present in urine, but in the amount of 1-2 pieces. in sight. Absence or excess indicate serious disorders of the genitourinary system
    BillbilirubinIf we take the norm, then it should not exist at all. If bilirubin is present, it is immediately clear that there are problems with the liver or adrenal glands. It is impossible to diagnose on your own
    KETketonesTo be clear, this is the presence of acetone. But it is impossible to detect them in a single portion. Deviation from the norm - urgent treatment
    PROproteinThe norm is complete absence. Presence – a problem with the functioning of the kidneys and reproductive system
    NITbacteriuria or nitritesFor the norm, a very small amount is allowed. Ideally there should be none at all. In the presence of nitrites – diseases associated with the kidneys and bladder.
    G.L.U.glucoseShouldn't be in the metrics. But if suddenly the answer contains even a small amount, then first a repeat analysis, and then a referral to a specialist with a presumptive diagnosis of “diabetes mellitus”
    pHacidityThe norm is up to 6.0, with an increase – urinary tract infections
    S.G.densityThis indicator helps to verify the presence of diabetes mellitus, as well as monitor the process of glucose reduction
    LEUleukocytesPresence and deviation from the norm: inflammation of the genitourinary system. Indicators should not exceed 60 cells
    UBGurobilinogenThere is always a small amount. But if there is an excess, it indicates liver problems

    Need to know! PH is always different for everyone. It varies depending on many factors: food consumed the day before the test; age and condition of the person; dosage forms used and time of day. The code makes it clear how excellent the acid-base balance is in the body.

    General clinical urinalysis (CUR) is a very common and long-used diagnostic tool. Moreover, its use is no less relevant in our time than when it appeared. Having received the research results, many are confused by the abundance of incomprehensible terms. There are many abbreviations written on the form, and Latin is used. Many things are not clear, for example, neg in a urine test, what is it? You should know that the presence of the abbreviation neg (negative) is a good sign for the patient, which means this substance was not detected in the biological fluid being tested.

    Urobilinogen in pregnant women and children

    For expectant mothers, the same reference values ​​are determined as for everyone else. A temporary increase in urobilinogen levels is allowed, which is associated with the growth of the uterus and an increase in the load on the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract.


    In case of sudden darkening of urine, it is necessary to urgently take a test for urobilinogen to exclude liver pathologies or acute intoxication. The likelihood of developing diseases of the hepatobiliary system increases in women with a hereditary predisposition.

    In most cases, the concentration of urobilinogen increases due to dehydration. At the same time, urine becomes denser and richer. Dehydration can be caused not only by insufficient fluid intake, but also by changes in the daily diet, taking dietary supplements and vitamins, as well as some other medications. Dehydration is also observed in the early stages of pregnancy (toxicosis of the first half). This condition is accompanied by a significant increase in urobilinogen in the urine (2-3 times).

    In children, urobilinogen normally should not exceed 3.2 mmol/l. In case of increased concentration, differential diagnosis of the following diseases is carried out:

    • cholelithiasis;
    • hepatitis of various etiologies;
    • physiological jaundice (destruction of specific hemoglobin and associated red blood cells);
    • liver cirrhosis in acute or chronic form;
    • dysbacteriosis (often observed in children of the younger age group);
    • anemia (anemia, low blood hemoglobin);
    • colitis and enterocolitis caused by pathogenic bacteria or helminths;
    • poisoning with food, drugs, etc.

    Important! All materials are for reference purposes only and are in no way an alternative to face-to-face consultation with a specialist.

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    Among the indicators of urine composition, one of the most important is the level of urobilinogen (ubg). A significant increase and deviation from the norm of this indicator may be evidence of the development of urological diseases. Urobilin in urine is formed from the breakdown of protein and hemoglobin, which subsequently forms yellow pigments in the urethra. Urobilinogen is detected in the tests of every person, because the processes of breakdown of protein structures and hemoglobin occur constantly. When diagnosing urobilinogen, we are not talking about the substance itself, but about its quantity, which normally should not exceed 0 -0.5 µmol/liter. The absence of the uro indicator or its excess of the norm may be an indicator of a serious pathological condition.

    Reasons for increasing uro

    A high uro level indicates excess bilirubin production and destruction of red blood cells. The reasons why urobilinoids may increase are due to the development of liver pathologies or hemolysis. In adults, increased uro concentrations may occur due to:

    • Severe poisoning with poisons or toxins.
    • Chronic diseases of the liver and gall bladder.
    • Incompatibility of the Rh factor during blood transfusion.
    • Alcohol and food intoxication.
    • Liver failure.
    • Obstruction of the bile ducts.
    • Chronic heart and intestinal diseases.

    A urine urobilinogen test is recommended to be performed at least 2 times a year, especially in the presence of chronic liver disorders or any diseases of the digestive system.

    During pregnancy, women often have a reading of 34 µmol/l, which indicates intoxication of the body. This result is a consequence of toxicosis, loss of fluid and excessive secretion of bile.

    Norm uro

    The amount of urobilinogen in urine is measured by a special unit developed by P. Ehrlich, who is the author of the chemical reaction for detecting this substance in urine. One Erich unit is 1 mg of the substance per deciliter of urine. For a more convenient calculation, the milligram per liter measurement is used. The normal level of urobilinogen in urine is 5 – 10 mg/liter (0.5 – 1 Erich unit), not exceeding 17 µmol/l.

    The norm of uro in a child’s urine should also not exceed 1 Erich unit. If this indicator is elevated, there is a risk of developing inflammatory or infectious disorders. An increase in urobilinogen in urine to 3.4 can be within normal limits only during pregnancy, when functional changes in the body and intensive production of bilirubin and hemoglobin are observed, but such a high concentration is not the norm for all women.

    A healthy person contains small amounts of urobilin, and it can be so small that the result shows a negative value (0). But a value of 0 is not normal, since the absence of urobilinogen may be a manifestation of blockage of the biliary tract, in which bile stops penetrating into the intestines. This condition requires surgical treatment.

    An indicator within 0.5 – 1 is the norm. This is due to the fact that hemoglobin constantly breaks down and the products of its destruction are excreted through the intestines. A result above 1.7 indicates that in the process of some disturbance (most often liver intoxication) more red blood cells died in the liver. The concentration of urobilinogen in the urine is 3.2 - 3.4, which means that serious inflammatory and infectious processes occur in the liver, which destroy the organ. An increase to this level indicates poisoning by heavy metals and chemicals.

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